Diabetes is a chronic disease, which occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This leads to an increased concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycaemia).
Type 1 diabetes (earlier known as insulin-dependent or childhood-onset diabetes) is characterized by a lack of insulin production.
Type 2 diabetes (earlier known as non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes) is caused by the body's ineffective use of insulin. It often results from excess body weight and physical inactivity.
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycaemia that is first recognized during pregnancy. It can lead to serious health risks for both the mother and child.
Diabetes is a growing challenge in India with estimated 8.7% diabetic population in the age group of 20 and 70 years. The rising prevalence of diabetes and other noncommunicable diseases is driven by a combination of factors - rapid urbanization, sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy diets, tobacco use, and increasing life expectancy.
Obesity and overweight are the most important risk factors responsible for diabetes. Much of the diabetes burden can be prevented or delayed by behavioural changes favouring a healthy diet and regular physical activity.
- Dietary guidelines for Indians, NIN, 2011
- Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, WHO, 2004
- Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014, WHO
- Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia, Report of a WHO/IDF Consultation
- WHO tools to prevent and control noncommunicable diseases
- Screening of patients with tuberculosis for diabetes mellitus in India, India Tuberculosis-Diabetes Study
- Prevalence of generalized & abdominal obesity in urban & rural India- the icmr-indiab study
Diabetes, India Country Profile, 2016
- Set of recommendations for marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages, WHO 2010
Noncommunicable Diseases in the South-East Asia Region; Situation and Response, 2011
Report of the First Meeting of the Ad hoc Working Group on Science and Evidence for Ending Childhood Obesity
National Action Plan and Monitoring Framework for Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases