Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness. The virus is transmitted easily from person to person via droplets. Influenza tends to spread rapidly in seasonal epidemics. Infection usually lasts for about a week, and is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, aching muscles, headache and severe malaise, non-productive cough and sore throat. Serious outcomes of influenza infection can result in hospitalization or death. Young children, pregnant women, older people and persons with certain health conditions are at a higher risk of getting influenza related complications.
Influenza viruses are constantly changing, and can infect both humans and animals (birds, pigs, horses). There are several types (namely A, B and C) and subtypes of the Influenza virus. In India, both seasonal influenza and avian influenza (in wild birds, poultry) have been widely reported.
Vaccination is recommended each year for protection against seasonal influenza. Antiviral drugs for influenza given early (within 48 hours of symptom onset) may reduce severe complications and deaths.
Influenza Virus Infection in Humans
- Tool for Influenza Pandemic Risk Assessment (TIPRA) available
- Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2017 southern hemisphere influenza season
- Antigenic and genetic characteristics of zoonotic influenza viruses and candidate vaccine viruses developed for potential use in human vaccines
- Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus
- Guidelines on categorization of Seasonal Influenza A H1N1 cases, during screening for home isolation, testing, treatment and, hospitalization (Revised on 11.02.2015)
- Government of India guidelines for vaccination with influenza vaccine,21 October 2016
- Clinical Management of Seasonal Influenza, MOHFW
- Guidance on Home Care of an Influenza Patient
- Risk Communication on Seasonal Influenza, Flu Facts: Know when to seek care
- Risk Communication on Seasonal Influenza, Seasonal Influenza: Audio Spot
- Outlets authorized to see Oseltamivir, India
- Pandemic Influenza A H1N1, Clinical management Protocol, and Infection Control Guidelines India
- Guidelines for Sample Collection and Handling of Human Clinical samples for Laboratory Diagnosis of H1N1 Influenza
WHO Interim Global, Epidemiological Surveillance, Standards for Influenza, (July 2012)
- Avian Influenza H5N1 and other avian viruses
- A Manual for Estimating Disease Burden Associated With Seasonal Influenza
- Evolution of a pandemic A(H1N1) 2009, April 2009 – August 2010, 2nd edition
- Use of Influenza Rapid Diagnostic Tests
- Status of Avian Influenza Outbreaks, India
- Contingency Plan for management of human cases of Avian Influenza, Government of India