Humans coexist with animals in a variety of ways -- in close interdependence based on companion, production, food, livelihood or well-being with the environment together. The interface between humans, animals and the environment we share can be a source of diseases impacting public health. Diseases transmissible from animals to humans are referred to as zoonoses -- through direct or indirect contact (by way of food, water and the environment).
Rabies is still a major public health concern in Asia including Myanmar. Dogs are the main source of human rabies transmission. WHO, FAO, OIE (International Organization for Animal Health) and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control are working together to tackle rabies, with the goal for “zero human rabies deaths by 2030.”
Access to safe and nutritious food is key to sustaining life and promoting good health. Unsafe food containing harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances, causes more than 200 diseases – ranging from diarrhoea to cancers.
Influenza or “the flu” may occur throughout the year in tropical areas including Myanmar. July to September is the usual influenza season for Myanmar. The following personal protective measures are keys in flu prevention:
July to September is the usual influenza season in Myanmar coinciding with the monsoon. Seasonal influenza is a serious public health problem in every country. It can cause severe illness and death, especially in high risk populations. An influenza outbreak can take an economic toll, in lost productivity and strained health services.
Myanmar is prone to various natural hazards. Historical data show that there have been natural disasters every few years. The humanitarian community in Myanmar, represented by the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT), developed and regularly updates the inter-agency Emergency Response Preparedness (ERP) Plan to support the Government of the Union of Myanmar in preparing for, and responding to, hazards that may affect the country.
Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of microbes to resist the effects of antibiotics – that is, the germs are not killed, and their growth is not stopped. As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist, may spread to others. Misuse and overuse of antimicrobial drugs in human and animals have put every nation at risk from antimicrobial resistance.
Biosafety and biosecurity is an important area to mitigate spread of highly infectious diseases. Joint external evaluation of International Health Regulations highlighted the importance of biosafety and biosecurity guideline development.